FULL TEXT OF THE SYRIAN
SPONSORED PEACE AGREEMENT FOR LEBANON SIGNED IN DAMASCUS ON DECEMBER
Agreement signed by Mr. N. Berri, Mr. E. Hobeika,
Mr. W. Joumblatt and witnessed by the Vice-President of Syria Mr. A.
Amid the tragic,
extraordinary circumstances that have been afflicting Lebanon, the
conferees have drawn up a national solution based on our people's
aspirations towards liberating the land from the Israeli occupation,
restoring security and peace to the homeland, and establishing a
sound, democratic regime by upholding justice and equality, both
politically and socially, and realizing the Lebanese people's
ambitions in all fields. this solution requires a comprehensive
national commitment and pan-Arab strength represented in
implementing special relations with fraternal Syria, which did not
and will never spare any effort, under President struggler Hafez El-Asad's
leadership, to deliver Lebanon and protect its independence, unity,
and Arab affiliation and to lead it toward a democratic solution for
its various struggles.
Chapter 1: General
Lebanon is an independent, free, and
sovereign state in terms of its territory, people, and institutions
within its boundaries outlined in the Lebanese Constitution that are
internationally recognized. It is of Arab affiliation and identity;
an active, founding member of the Arab League; and it is committed
to the various Arab League charters. The state embodies these
principles in various fields and areas without exception. Lebanon is
also a member of the United Nations and is committed to the UN
Lebanon's Unity: Absolute adherence to
Lebanon's unity. All partition plans, all forms of discrimination,
and all proposals of political decentralization such as federations,
cantons, and decentralization in security and development are
rejected. this position makes inevitable the imposition of personal
safety and settlement in any Lebanese site in any form and
regardless of the period of this settlement.
The Political System: Lebanon is
democratic, parliamentary republic established on the basis of
respect for public freedoms, particularly the freedom of opinion and
creed. It is also based on the principles of separation of powers
and social justice and equality of duties and rights of all citizens,
without any discrimination or preference, within a free economic
system based on comprehensive scientific planning of various
resources, needs and activities in all areas. It is a country of
human dignity and cultural ambitions.
- Continuing the escalation of resistance to
liberate Lebanon from the Israeli occupation, liquidate its
direct as well as indirect presence, reject all sorts of
security arrangements and their suspect tools, and thwart any
local tool that is tied or dealing with the occupation.
- Providing all resources and pooling all
official efforts to back the national resistance in the South in
terms of manpower and funds, in its capacity as the main base
the process of liberation and the correct bases unifying
- Supporting the firmness and steadfastness of
the southern Lebanese citizen on his land by providing human,
material, and economic means of development.
- Working to implement Resolution 425 and all
UN Security Council resolutions pertaining to comprehensively
removing the Israeli occupation and rejecting all Israeli
conditions and restrictions.
- Adhering to the armistice agreement signed
on 23 March 1949.
Chapter II: The Principles of the Political
Efforts to strengthen the spirit of national
growth and democratic practice require replacement of the current
sectarian formula with a national one that can guarantee the
people's participation and representation in a political authority
capable of expressing the people's aspiration and ambitions on the
national level and on the basis of freedom, social justice,
equality, equal opportunities, development, and security. Hence, it
was agreed that the building of Lebanon's future
and the establishment of a modern, developed state is free from
legacy of the past necessitate the cancellation of the sectarian
system. As a result, a new constitution will be drafted on the basis
of reinforcing the homeland's unity, independence, Arab affiliation,
and democratic system, as well as a full equality among the
citizens. This constitution, which will be drafted within one year
at the most, will include the following basic principles provisions:
- The Lebanese system is republican,
democratic, and parliamentary.
- The Lebanese are the source of authorities
and will practice their national supremacy through
constitutional institutions as outlined in the future
- The Lebanese are equal before the law and
enjoy equal civil, political, and social rights and assume
duties without discrimination.
- Regarding the assumption of public positions
and posts, no Lebanese has any special privileges apart from his
qualifications within the legal conditions.
- Personal freedom shall be safeguarded and
protected by the law and the freedom of belief shall be
protected. In this regard, stress is put on Article 9 of the
current constitution, as well as on public freedoms regarding
opinion, expression, education, parties, societies. residence,
labor, election, gatherings, possessions, and trade union work.
All these should take place within the limit of ;law on a par
with democratic countries.
- The economic system shall be considered as
free, organized, and capable of guaranteeing individual
initiative so long as it does not conflict with the general
order and public interest. This system is based on a
comprehensive scientific development of various energies, needs,
and activities in all areas. It is also based on a long term
development plan, considering Lebanon's unity an indivisible
- Social justice shall prevail; social
cooperation shall be considered a national obligation; national
education shall be the citizen's right and duty. Compulsory
education shall be provided for all citizens through the end of
- A new election law will be drafted to secure
the broadest and best representation of a national basis and to
consider each province as one electorate in order to safeguard
national unity and to express the will to coexist. All
citizens-men and women-have the right to vote when they become
18 years old in accordance with conditions defined by the
- A senate will be established to assume,
together with the chamber of deputies, legislative powers
regarding fateful issues: amending the constitution, war and
peace, international treaties and agreements, factional civil
status, the citizenship law, the senate elections.
- the new government will immediately form a
preparatory committee to draft the new country's constitution in
preparation of approval.
The Stage of Moving toward Complete
- Moving from the sectarian formula to another
formula that guarantees national cohesion under the canopy of
the democratic. parliamentary, republican system involves a
transitional and gradual stage toward complete non-sectarianism.
At this stage, reforms and measures of a constitutional,
systematic, and legal nature mentioned in this document will be
adopted in accordance with the following:
A. A new government will be formed
immediately. The beginning of the transitional stage will be the
date this government is formed.
B. The stage of ending the state of war
in Lebanon will be no more than one year beginning with the date of
forming the new government in accordance with what is stated in
Chapter V of this agreement.
C. the present Chamber of Deputies will
be entrenched and expanded after forming the new government by
appointing new deputies in accordance with the principles of equal
sharing between Muslims and Christians and equality among the three
greater sects, and on the basis of numbers determined by this
agreement. Within the period of one year at the most, all legal and
constitutional texts relating to implementing the transitional
reforms mentioned in this document will be applied.
D. The transitional stage will end when
the Chamber of Deputies makes a decision to determine the beginning
of the date for working for a total cancellation of sectarianism in
a accordance with the following:
a. After restoration of normal situation
in the country, the government will call for electing a new Chamber
of Deputies on the basis of a new electoral law in accordance with
the principles mentioned in the agreement.
b. During the second half of the term of
the first elected Chamber of Deputies, the government will propose a
plan to determine the date of the beginning work to cancel
sectarianism in parliamentary representation, the three executives
[the prime minister, the president, and speaker of the Chamber of
Deputies], the ministries, and class A jobs. the majority required
for approving the plan will be two thirds of the members of the
Chamber of Deputies.
c. If the plan is not approved, the vote
required for its approval will become 55 percent beginning with the
second half of the term of the second elected Chamber of Deputies.
d. If the plan is not approved the
cancellation of sectarianism in parliamentary representation, in the
presidencies, the ministries, the class A job or those equivalent,
during the first half of the term of the third elected Chamber of
Deputies, will be decided legally.
Chapter III: The Rules of the Transitional
During the transitional stage, and in order to
establish sound balance in jurisdictions between
the legislative and executive powers, along with guaranteeing the
independence of the judicial system under the canopy of the
democratic, parliamentary, republican system, the following rules
will be adopted and the constitutional or organizational laws and
articles will be issued, amended, or suspended in accordance with
the principles that would guarantee their applications:
In the executive power:
I. The President of the Republic:
1. the election of the President: After
reforming the conditions of the legislative power in accordance with
the principles that will follow, the majority required for electing
the President of the Republic will be 55 percent of the legal number
of the Chamber of Deputies in session that will follow the first
session. The legal quorum for conducting elections in all sessions
will be seven-tenths of the number of members of the Chamber of
The power of the President of the Republic:
A. the President of the Republic is
considered the head of state and symbol of the country's unity. He
is responsible for respecting the constitution and for safeguarding
Lebanon's independence, unity, territorial integrity, and national
unity. The President of the Republic shall take a constitutional
B. The President of the Republic is
considered the supreme commander of the Army.
C. The President of the Republic signs
all decrees and issues laws within limited periods after approval by
the competent authorities. He also transfers draft laws to the
legislative power. He also has the right to oppose [laws], in
accordance with the principles stated in this document, within the
periods defined in it. During the forty day period, the President of
the Republic shall also issue all the laws of a top-priority nature
that the Council of Ministers transfers to the Chamber of Deputies.
D. the President of The Republic names
the prime minister and issues decrees forming the cabinet in
accordance with the provisions of Article 5 of this chapter. He will
also issue decisions considering the cabinet as resigned in case
enunciated in this document. Until legislative power is formed by
increasing the number of deputies in accordance with this agreement,
the government will be formed in accordance with the requirements of
reconciliation and in a way conducive to implementing this program.
E. The President of the Republic
presides over and participates in discussions-with no voting power
during the meetings of the following:
- The Supreme Defense Council.
- The Council of Ministers in limited cases
pertaining to approving the policy statement that defines the
policy of the government; declaring a state of peace or war,
general mobilization, or a state of emergency; Dissolving the
Chamber of Deputies; and approving the constitutional draft law,
election law, and general amnesty.
- The President of the Republic can call the
cabinet into emergency session in certain cases when the country
is seriously threatened.
- The President of the Republic can call the
cabinet into session once a month at most in order to discuss
draft laws that he may have turned down, provided the agenda of
such session does not include any other topics.
F. The President receives credentials,
receives diplomatic representatives, and presides over official
G. The President grants state medals.
H. The President is not held responsible
for the consequences of his exercising his powers except in cases
which the constitution terms as high treason.
I. the President grants special
reprieves and proposes and issues general amnesty law.
J. The President issues decrees
accepting the resignation of any of the cabinet ministers after the
agreement by the Prime Minister. He can ask any minister to resign
after the agreement by the cabinet.
K. Whenever the need arises, the
President can address messages to the Chamber of Deputies and
ministers if he deems it necessary.
L. The President chooses the employees
of the presidency from among the employees of the state
II. The Council of Ministers:
1. T Council of Ministers is composed of
its chairman, a number of ministers of state, and ministers with
ministerial portfolios. The necessary quorum for a cabinet meeting
is two-thirds of its members.
2. The executive power will be
prerogative of the Council of Ministers, which exercises all
executive and administrative powers and draws up the state's general
policy in its capacity as the body solely responsible to the
legislative power and the people. These powers includes:
A. Drawing up the state's general policy
in the political, economic, defensive, financial, developmental,
educational, and social fields as well in other areas.
B. Drawing up draft laws and decrees,
making the necessary decisions to implement state policy, and
assigning top-priority precedence to draft laws whenever it deems
C. Insuring implementation of laws and
regulations and monitoring the performance of all state organs and
establishments, including the military ones.
D. Enacting and canceling the state of
emergency as well as war, general mobilization, and international
treaties and agreements, taking into consideration the prerogatives
of the legislative power.
E. Directing and coordinating the work
of the ministries and al state administrations and general
F. Drawing up the state budget bill and
laying down comprehensive and long-term development plans.
G. Dissolving the Chamber of Deputies by
a justified decision and calling the Chamber of Deputies into
H. Appointing class A employees or their
equals and asking them to resign or accepting their resignation in
accordance with legal practice.
III. The Ministerial Council
The Ministerial Council is made up of the prime
minister and the government's ministers and makes its decisions on a
consensus basis. In case of dispute, the issue will be presented to
the Council of Ministers to make the appropriate decision. This
Council's duties are:
- To continue efforts to achieve the required
reform in all areas.
- To continue efforts to implement the plan to
end the war within the period defined for it.
- To continue efforts to secure transitional
conditions for implementation of the new constitution.
- To propose the broad lines of state policy
and to define its basic options to be presented to the Council
- To prepare for and present to the Council of
Ministers plans, trends, and concepts.
- To approve all decrees that do not need a
decision from the Council of Ministers including relieving one
or more ministers of their posts.
- The members of the Ministerial Conical are
considered members of the Supreme Defense Council.
- The General Secretariat of the Council of
Ministers comprises a number of assistant secretaries general,
councilors, and specialized persons who from a special organ for
the Council of Ministers-and organ which is linked to the prime
minister and which carries out any work demanded by the Council
IV. The Prime Minister:
- The prime minister resides over the Council
of Ministers meetings in all cases except in other cases
mentioned elsewhere in this document. He also conducts sessions,
proposes agendas, and participates in discussions when he has
the right to vote.
- He presides over meetings of the Ministerial
Council in all cases.
- He accepts the resignation of one or more
ministers and refers the decree to the President.
- He is the deputy of the head of the Supreme
- He oversees implementation of the
Ministerial Council's recommendations and decisions and the
Council of Minister's decisions and follow up the work of the
ministries and departments.
V. The Formation and Resignation of the
Government and the Time Limit for issuing laws and decrees:
- The government is formed in accordance of
the following procedures:
A. The President holds mandatory parliamentary
and political consultations and, in light of them, issues a
decree naming the prime minister-designate
B. Following parliamentary and political
consultations, the prime minister designate forms the government
and presents a list of the government members to the President.
If he agrees, he issues decrees.
C. If the President refrains from signing the
decree within two weeks after receiving the list, the prime
minister designate will submit is case to the parliament. If his
view point wins 55 percent of the parliament members' votes, the
President should issue the decree. If the parliament does not
approve the government, the prime minister will be considered as
relieved of his post and consultation will be renewed.
D. If the prime minister refrains from presenting
the list of the government members to the President within one
month following his designation, he will be considered incapable
of forming the government. In this case, consultations will be
- Following this agreement the government will
be formed and the prime minister and ministers will be named in
accordance with he requirements of the accord in order to
implement this program. This will continue until the legislative
power is reformed by increasing the number of parliament members
in accordance with this agreement.
- The government should win the parliament's
- All decrees and draft laws will bare the
signatures of the President, the prime minister, the minister
concerned, taking in account the power of Ministerial Council,
except in naming the prime minister or accepting the cabinet's
resignation or considering the cabinet as having resigned in the
A. If the prime minister resigns.
B. If the Council withholds confidence.
C. If half of the cabinet members resign.
- A 30-day period will be given for signing
draft decrees and decrees of transforming laws approved at the
council by the President of the Republic or turning these
decrees down within this period for justified reasons. This
period will be effective from the date of the draft decrees are
submitted to the general directorate of the presidency of the
republic. When the period ends without signing or turning down
the draft decrees for justified reasons, the decree will be
effective by law. If he turn it down, it will be resubmitted to
the Council of Ministers, and the Council of Ministers insists
on its decision, the President of the Republic then shall sign
the decree. These period will also be applied within periods
stated in Article 56 of the current Constitution.
In case of differences, and if the prime
minister and minister in charge of the draft decree, the draft
decree then will be transformed to the Council of Ministers for
settlement. The same period will be given to the prime minister and
the Ministerial Council as of submitting the draft decrees for the
general secretariat. However, laws approved by the Chamber of
Deputies will be applied within periods stated in Article 56 of the
In the Legislative Power:
- During the transitional stage, popular
representation will be expanded by increasing the number of
deputies to 198 in a manner that will achieve the soundness and
justice of this representation within the framework of equal
sharing between Muslims and Christians and equality among the
three greater sects in accordance with the principles of this
document until the sectarianism in representation is canceled
after the end of the transitional stage.
- In order to allow elections to be held,
temporary appointment of deputies shall take place to fill
vacant seats, seats that may become vacant, or those seats newly
made by the Council of Ministers.
- The speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, his
deputy, and member of the Chamber of Deputies will be elected
for a 2-year term renewable.
- During the transitional period, the
government shall be granted exceptional powers for legislation
in all fields except the state's general budget for one year
In Civil Service Jobs:
- The rule of sectarian representation shall
be canceled in civil service jobs, the judicial organ, and
security and military institutions. In order to guarantee just
implementation of this principle, the rights of wronged sects
shall be settled within a period of 6 months.
- Exception of this cancellation are class A
jobs or their equivalent in the public and mixed administrations
and institutions, independent institutions, and the judicial
organ. These jobs shall be within the framework of equal sharing
between Muslims and Christians. In no way will this mean a
monopoly of any job by any sect.
- During the transitional stage, the
government will supervise the reforming and purging of the
state's civil and military institutions in accordance with he
principles mentioned in this document.
In the Supreme Constitutional Courts:
A Supreme Council for trying presidents
and ministers as stated in the Constitution and a court to control
the constitutional nature of laws and to settle all conflicts
resulting from parliamentary and presidential elections shall be
formed. The president of the constitutional court shall be appointed
in accordance with the Council of Ministers proposal and approval by
the Chamber of Deputies.
In the Social and Economic Council:
A Social and Economic Council to
represent economic, social, trade unions, and scientific
functionaries shall be established. The law shall determine the
fields of specialization of this council.
In the Administrative Decentralization:
The administrative system stated in Legislative
Decree No. 116 dated 12 June 1959 to reinforce the administrative
decentralization shall be reexamined:
- By increasing and redistributing
governorates in a manner that will secure citizens' interests
and national cohesion.
- By strengthening municipal councils and
unions and governorates and expanding their powers.
- By adopting popular representation in
councils in the governorates.
- By transferring most administrative
responsibilities and duties from the central authority to the
local authority, thus facilitating and speeding up services for
- By reforming the judiciary in order to
ensure direct services to disputant parties.
The prerogatives of the establishments mentioned in this agreement,
with the new Constitution, will be confined to economic
- Laying down a policy of economic
rehabilitation and reconstruction and comprehensive development
which will be defined in a coordinated, clear program and which
will be supervised mainly by the state. This will require a
speedy reform of its administration, and enhancement of its
performance, and the forming of specialized administrations or
expansion of existing ones. The provisions of this program aim
at revitalizing the various sectors of national economy on the
basis of integration and harmony, taking into consideration the
need to preserve natural and environmental wealth, provided this
is based on the principle of free economy.
- Devoting special attention to areas that
were affected by war and to those areas that have been deprived
for decades. A development plan should be drawn up for these
areas so that the best possible income and wealth can be
distributed among citizens and areas so that fair, integrated
developmental equilibrium can be realized for the homeland.
- Working to realize comprehensive social
justice through financial, economic, and social reforms;
adopting the five-year plan in economic and financial planning
of the budget; and completing the stages of generalizing the
social security system, including security for the aged and
ensuring free medical care for all citizens.
- Preserving private property and individual
enterprise, which must not harm public interest. This requires
reforming taxation laws, monitoring their application,
protecting the rights of the treasury, and supporting the
structure of the public sector.
- Drawing up a comprehensive housing program,
giving first preference to displaced persons and those who were
harmed by the war, and encouraging cooperative societies.
- Drawing up a comprehensive program to
utilize water resources and implementing projects that meet this
desire, particularly the Al-Litani river project.
Education and learning:
- Placing education and learning in the
service of building the future Lebanon on national, nonsectarian
basis and utilizing Lebanon's manpower.
- Supporting education in a way that will lead
to spreading it and making it general, free, and compulsory;
developing educational programs; and unifying educational
curricula, particularly books on history and social upbringing.
- Supporting formal education on all levels
and stressing the national role of the University of Lebanon by
giving it the necessary and sufficient backing, particularly in
the technical colleges, in order to allow it to play its role in
uniting the Lebanese society and making room for all the
Lebanese people to acquire the necessary level of education to
promote their economic, social, and cultural development.
- Stressing the role of technical and
vocational education by giving it first preference and linking
it to the comprehensive construction process in Lebanon.
- Preserving the system private education.
- Supporting scientific research by providing
the necessary assistance for public establishments in this
Concerning the issue of nationality:
- Enacting a new law of nationality and
settling outstanding issues that are being discussed. Special
courts will be formed to look into problems of nationality for
- Canceling the mention of religion on
In the Military and Security Fields:
1. The Army:
The Army's basic task is to protect the
nation from any foreign aggression, particularly Israeli aggression
against Lebanon. the Army's most important role in this regard is
resisting the Israeli occupation of Lebanese territory. As for
reconstructing the Army, this will be effected in accordance with a
nationalist, ideological creed to whose principles all Army
personnel will be committed and which will be based on the
principals that defines Lebanon identity and affiliation with its
Arab surroundings. The Army's structure will be in harmony with
Lebanon's pursuit of strategic coordination and integration with
In accordance with this concept, the following
principles will be adhered to:
A. The duties of the Army are defined
within the Supreme Defense Council in accordance with the defense
B. In order to rehabilitate the Army, it is to be
withdrawn to its camps in accordance with a comprehensive security
plan to be approved by the national unity government, which will
demand Syria's help during the rehabilitation in the following
fields: training courses, exchange of expertise and information, and
C. The national unity government will make
decisions and measures to work out programs for rebuilding and
rehabilitating the Army in accordance with the principles in this
document, including the drafting of a new defense law.
D. The army will be kept way from internal and
E. The compulsory military service law will be
F. Army intelligence work is restricted to military
and tactical security.
2. The Internal Security Forces:
The duty of maintaining security
in Lebanese territory is entrusted to the internal security forces.
These forces will be reinforced in equipment and numbers and their
central organs and regional units Will be reorganized as quickly as
possible. This requires recruitment sot hat the forces can be used
effectively to protect the citizens' security in all Lebanese area.
Organs for collecting information will also be reinforced.
3. The Public Security:
The public security should be
strengthened so that it can carry out the basic duty represented in
controlling the international border in addition to its other duties
stipulated in the laws and regulations that govern its work such as
issuing passports and taking care of foreign nationals. This
requires units to protect land and sea borders as well as ports and
airports except the border with Israel, which is the duty of the
Chapter IV: The Distinguished Relations
Between Lebanon and Syria:
The most prominent meaning in Lebanon's
Arabism in its distinguished relationship with Syria and its
inevitable, fateful link to Syria. Proceeding from its principle,
relations should be based on a strategic integration concept between
Lebanon and Syria because their fateful issues are one as a result
of their affiliation, history, and geography, a fact that requires a
high decree of coordination in various fields. We believe that
Lebanon's distinguished relations with Syria should be genuine so
that every understanding between the two countries can be
included in clear cut bilateral agreements which will be
translated into legal frameworks in both countries in order to
prevent any political party from tampering with these firm
principles. Thus, relations will not remain at the mercy of whims,
interests, and regional and international factors.
The word "integration" in this agreement
means the following:
The potentialities and capabilities of each country should
complement the potentialities and capabilities of the in order
to reinforce each country's situation and achieve their joint
interests, on the condition that this would be defined and
interpreted within the framework of the bilateral agreements
mentioned in this agreement.
The areas of the
distinguished relations between the two countries are wide and
1. In the field of foreign policy:
Complete and firm coordination should cover all
Arab, regional, and international issues on the condition that the
two countries agree on the requirements of this coordination, one
after another and in accordance with proposed issues and subjects,
so that they can take positions on them. In this regard, direct,
guaranteed, and secret means of communications should be provided
for senior officials in charge of foreign policy in both countries.
2. In the field of military relations:
The fateful struggle which Syria is waging in its
efforts to establish a strategic parity with Israel as a result of
well known Arab circumstances, such as the exclusion of Egypt from
the arena of struggle and the emergence of Arab-Palestinian axis
with the aim of confusing Syria politically, military, and in the
field of security, makes it incumbent on Lebanon not to allow itself
to be the gateway through which Israel can deal any blow to or
threaten Syria. Therefore, the agreement must be reached to allow
stationing of Syria military units in specific points in Lebanon
that will be defined by joint military committees in accordance with
the requirements of the Syrian and Lebanese strategic security until
such time as the Lebanese Army is rebuild and rehabilitated in
accordance with a national, militant ideology that will
differentiate between the genuine friend and the true enemy and
which will be in harmony with Lebanon's affiliation and national
options. When such an army, which will have defensive tasks against
the enemy, is completely build, it will take its real, strategic
role in the strategic balance in the region through its role on
3. In the field of security relations:
The saying that Lebanon's security is part of
Syria's security and that Syria's security is part of Lebanon's
security is correct. It should be implemented on the ground through
Lebanese-Syrian security integration that will be expressed in the
A. Joint definition of the main threats
that endanger the security, independence, and system of government
in both countries.
B. Unified view toward such primary threats and
hence, an agreement on deep-rooted remedies for such threats that
will commensurate with sovereignty of both countries and which will
realize their cherished goal. These remedies will be administered by
the competent local organs of both countries.
C. Agreements should be approved to ensue
coordination among security organs, each in accordance with its
interest in both countries and in the two countries' interests.
4. In the field of economic relations:
Coordination and integration will be maximized in
this field despite the different systems of government. As for the
organizing of this coordination, it will be defined by an expert
committee from both countries that will supervise proposing of
bilateral agreements and laws implementing them.
5. In the field of
Coordination in the field
of education is the pillar of entrenching kinship between the future
generations of both countries through national upbringing based on
Arab affiliation and the correct practice of this affiliation. This
coordination will be effected through joint committees that will
draw up nationalist, integrated educational basis. Within the
framework, and in accordance with the principles of educational
reform in Lebanon, the freedom of education will be preserved,
taking special care to prevent this freedom from becoming a new seed
of division among Lebanese people or creating hostility toward the
Arabs and Syria.
6. In the field of
Ensuring the continuation
of the special relations without sabotage is represented in
preventing any Lebanese-generated media attacks against such
relations. This requires that the Lebanese media be on high level of
national and pan-Arab responsibility and adhere to the principles
and aims enunciated in the national policy that is agreed and
approved constitutionally and legally, taking into consideration the
respect of the freedom of opinion and expression.
7. The practical
Upon beginning of the
transitional phase of the national solution project, the new
government will form a ministerial committee that will supervise the
provisions of this chapter and put it into practice.
Chapter V: The Mechanism
of Ending the War.
The phase of ending the war in Lebanon will be
limited to one year beginning with the date the new government is
formed. During this year, all constitutional and legal texts
pertaining to implementing the transitional reforms of this document
will be approved and implemented. The mechanism of ending the war is
based on the following principles and rules:
Immediate cease-fire with Syria's help, opening the roads and
crossing points, and stopping supplies of weapons and ammunition by
land, sea, and air.
Strengthening the role of the security committee and expending the
area of its jurisdiction to include all Lebanese territory.
Representatives of the internal security forces and Syrian officers
will be included in the committee. Accordingly, Syrian forces will
be stationed in agreed upon points, which will lead to extending
moral support and military backing t the internal security forces
during the phase to end the war in accordance with a comprehensive
security plan which national unity government will approve.
Strengthening the internal security forces and general security,
opening the door to recruitment, and entrusting the internal
security forces with a task of safeguarding security in all Lebanese
areas in order to spread the state's authority in these areas
Liquidating the militias and military and
paramilitary organizations in their various forms and working to
delete their elements in the country and in the nation's
Collecting weapons, with the state to buy them from both the
Lebanese and non-Lebanese parties.
Ensuring freedom of movement for Lebanese citizens and guaranteeing
their work and residence in all parts of Lebanon.
Finding a deep-rooted solution for the problem of the displaced
Lebanese persons; recognizing the right of each displaced Lebanese
person since 1975 to return to its land, house, and work; enacting
the necessary laws that guarantee this right; and ensuring the
necessary means to begin rebuilding. the return of displaced persons
will begin within three months of the formation of the new
government. This will gradually continue in light of the available
security requirements and will completely end within three years.
[Dated] 28 December, 1985